What are the uses and side effects of sodium bicarbonate? Why is it not commonly used clinically now? _Industrial additives

Sodium bicarbonate is an alkaline antacid, also known as baking soda. It can quickly buffer or neutralize gastric acid after oral administration. It does not directly affect gastric acid secretion. It can quickly increase the pH in the stomach and relieve stomach pain and pain caused by excessive gastric acid. Symptoms such as acid reflux and heartburn have been clinically used in the past to treat acid-related diseases such as gastritis, reflux esophagitis, and peptic tract ulcers. However, its antacid effect is short-lived and cannot effectively relieve clinical symptoms. Moreover, when it neutralizes gastric acid, it will Generates a large amount of carbon dioxide, which can cause adverse reactions such as belching and secondary gastric acid secretion. With the use of H2 receptor antagonists (such as ranitidine, famotidine, etc.) and proton pump inhibitors (omeprazole, ranitidine, etc.) Beprazole, etc.) and other drugs are widely used in clinical practice. At present, sodium bicarbonate is rarely used to treat acid-related diseases, but is mainly used to treat:

Prevention of urinary tract stones: Sodium bicarbonate is highly alkaline and can alkalinize urine, controlling the pH of urine between 6.2-6.9. Aluminum magnesium carbonate increases the solubility of drugs such as urate and sulfonamides. , accelerate its excretion and avoid the formation of urinary tract stones.

Correction of acidosis: Sodium bicarbonate is a strongly alkaline drug. Sodium bicarbonate injection can be used to correct metabolic acidosis, but its effect is short-lived and can easily cause tissue hypoxia. Routine use is recommended, and treatment of metabolic acidosis should focus on etiological treatment and volume resuscitation.

Drug poisoning: Intravenous infusion of sodium bicarbonate can be used for non-specific treatment of certain drug poisonings, such as barbiturates, salicylates and methanol poisoning. The principle is also to alkalize urine. , Promote the rapid excretion of poisonous drugs.

Many people think that biphenyl borate and sodium bicarbonate are a classic old drug, and it must be highly safe if it is still used today. , in fact, this is not necessarily the case. The side effects of sodium bicarbonate deserve our vigilance, mainly including:

Gastrointestinal tract: Sodium bicarbonate is a strongly alkaline drug. After oral administration, it neutralizes with gastric acid, produces a large amount of carbon dioxide, and increases Intragastric pressure, causing belching and secondary gastric acid secretion.

Hypokalemia: Long-term use of sodium bicarbonate can transfer potassium ions into cells, leading to hypokalemia, which can manifest as limb weakness, difficulty breathing, arrhythmia, and even cardiac arrest.

Cardiovascular: Sodium bicarbonate is an alkaline sodium salt that contains sodium ions. Long-term use in large doses can cause water and sodium retention, increase blood pressure, tissue edema, and even induce heart failure.

Phosphate stones: Taking sodium bicarbonate can increase the pH of urine. When the pH of urine is greater than 7.0, phosphate stones are easily formed.

Endocrine system and metabolism: Long-term use of large doses of sodium bicarbonate can cause metabolic acidosis. Excessive alkalization of the blood can lead to tissue hypoxia, decreased respiratory compensatory capacity, and inhibited breathing.

In short, sodium bicarbonate is a commonly used antacid in clinical practice. However, due to its short-lived effect, it is prone to adverse reactions. At present, It is rarely used clinically to treat acid-related diseases. It is mainly used to treat chronic metabolic acidosis, prevent urinary tract stones caused by urate, sulfa and other drugs, and rescue drug poisoning. Sodium bicarbonate is not absolutely safe and has side effects. It is worrying and may even be life-threatening. You should be vigilant during medication and long-term use is not recommended.

TAG: sodium bicarbonate, uses, side effects, clinical

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